Internal and external causes:
Excessive exposure to UV rays, skin aging (age spots), pollution, inflammatory reaction (acne marks), hormonal imbalances (pregnancy mask, taking hormonal contraceptives), genetic predisposition, certain drugs (anti-epileptic drugs), certain endocrine diseases (ovarian and thyroid disorders, adrenal insufficiency, certain pulmonary and pancreatic cancers).
Preventative steps to take:
Carry out a gentle exfoliation of the skin on a regular basis to prevent melanin from coloring the cells on the surface; protect yourself every day from UV rays with a broad-spectrum sun protection; limit the exposure of your skin to the sun; avoid scratching and popping pimples; use an antioxidant-based skin care product every day (vitamin C, ferulic acid, resveratrol, vitamin E); and never skip cleansing your skin in the evening.
How to reduce or eliminate:
Use treatments based on active ingredients with depigmenting/lightening properties such as vitamin C, retinoids, alpha-arbutin acid, licorice extract, niacinamide, azelaic acid, tranexamic acid, etc... (first visible effects appear after 30 days) which act at different stages of melanogenesis. To be accompanied by products containing exfoliating active ingredients such as A.H.A. (glycolic acid, mandelic acid, lactic acid) or PHA (gluconolactone) capable of removing the dead skin present on the surface and thus boosting its renewal.
A medical term describing a localized and uneven pigmentation disorder of the epidermis resulting from an irregular production of melanin (a dark brown to black pigment responsible for the coloring of the skin produced by melanocytes). It is characterized by the appearance and multiplication of brown spots in certain areas compared to the rest of the skin. Hyperpigmentation is expressed by spots of different shapes and sizes. There are different types of hyperpigmentation, the most common are: melasma (pregnancy mask or chloasma) caused by hormonal changes, post-inflammatory pigmentation (PIH) due to inflammation such as acne, and sun spots (age spots or lentigines) related to age or caused by overexposure to the sun