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Conseils pour garder une peau ferme à la ménopause.

How to maintain firm skin during menopause?

With the hormonal changes brought about by menopause, the visible effects on the skin are quite pronounced. The loss of skin elasticity and firmness are among the common consequences. How can one maintain firmer skin during menopause? This article provides some answers.

Menopause: What is it?

Menopause is a physiological phenomenon that affects all women between 45 and 55 years old. This phenomenon corresponds to the cessation of ovarian activity and therefore of the menstrual cycle. With the ovarian activity ceasing, menopause is characterised by a drop in ovarian hormones : oestrogens and progesterone.

Medically, a woman is considered to be menopausal when she has not had her period for 1 year.

In addition to the cessation of menstruation, menopause is characterised in 80% of women by climacteric symptoms. Climacteric disorders are hot flushes (or vasomotor flushes). These symptoms manifest as intense sensations of heat, palpitations, profuse sweating or even chills. These symptoms are transient and tend to diminish over time. Other symptoms such as vaginal dryness or urinary problems tend to become more permanent.

In the long term, menopause also increases the risk of diseases such as osteoporosis or cardiovascular diseases. Menopause is characterised by a deficiency in ovarian hormones. This deficiency significantly impacts the quality of life of women due to the various effects on their health. In addition to these effects, menopause also changes the quality of women's skin.

Less firm skin after menopause.

Before explaining why menopause is the cause of skin losing its firmness, it is necessary to understand the role of hormones.

Under the influence of oestrogens, the fibroblasts present in the dermis synthesise more collagen fibres, elastin, as well as hyaluronic acid, providing the skin with improved density, elasticity and firmness. Furthermore, the oestrogens increase the number of keratinocytes whose role is to synthesise keratin, a protein that protects the skin.

The role of progesterone in relation to the skin is still not well understood. It appears that it increases sebum secretion.Furthermore, progesterone has a known anti-androgenic effect.

Thus, at the time of menopause, the cessation of ovarian activity leads to a drop inoestrogens and therefore a decrease in fibroblastic activity. The skin loses density, elasticity, and firmness.

Beyond this loss in firmness, the loss of hyaluronic acid and the inactivity of the sebaceous glands, the skin generates a dehydration and a weakening of the hydrolipidic film. This results from the deficiency in progesterone. The skin then becomes more susceptible to external aggressions and transepidermal dehydration.

How to combat loss of firmness?

Cosmetics are useful in combating theimpact of menopause on the skin and maintaining firm skin. Certain active ingredients are highly effective in firming the skin:

  • Collagen:

    Collagen is a protein naturally synthesised by the body. In the skin, it is synthesised by fibroblasts found in the dermis. Due to its structure and its ability to regenerate the tissues of the epidermis, collagen combats skin sagging. However, during menopause, fibroblastic activity slows down and collagen synthesis is therefore reduced, leading to a loss of firmness. The supply of collagen through cosmetics is thus beneficial.

    Note : Scientific studies have proven the benefits of oral collagen supplementation on signs of ageing.

  • The peptides :

    Peptides aresmall proteins, typically containing fewer than 100 amino acids. In terms of their I.N.C.I. nomenclature, Greek qualifying prefixes are used. For example, di-, tri-, tetra-, pentapeptides refer to peptides of 2, 3, 4 and 5 amino acids in length, and so on. There are several variations: acetyl tetrapeptide-15, hexapeptide-2,acetyl tetrapeptide-9, alanyl glutamine,acetyl tetrapeptide-11, acetyl hexapeptide-1, carnosine,cyclopeptide-5...

    Peptides are multifunctional actives used to combat signs of ageing. Among their various properties, they stimulate the production of collagen and elastin. The peptides that boost the synthesis of collagen and elastin include palmitoyl tripeptide-5, acetyl tetrapeptide-9, acetyl tetrapeptide-2 and tripeptide-10 citrulline.

    Ourdensifying complexcontains three different peptides. These act simultaneously on various targets involved in supporting and enhancing the density of the skin:

    Theacetyl tetrapeptide-9 works on the lumican protein to strengthen the skin's structure. Composed of 4 amino acids, this peptide helps to organise the fibres in the dermis to improve firmness and reshape the contours of the face. The skin becomes firmer and more resilient. Theacetyl tetrapeptide-11 promotes the multiplication and regeneration of the dermis fibroblasts. The skin becomes denser and fine lines are filled. Thecyclo tetrapeptide-24 has a cyclic structure that helps it bind to receptors on the skin's surface to trigger cell communication. It then enhances the repair mechanisms of the epidermis. The skin becomes more elastic and the appearance of wrinkles is reduced.

  • Retinol:

    The retinol (or vitamin A) is considered one of the most effective compounds in treating signs of ageing. It is part of the retinoid family, which is derived from beta-carotene.

    Retinol is recognised for its ability to boost the production of hyaluronic acid and promote the synthesis and limit the degradation of collagen and elastin: making the skin both more supple and firm.

    Formulated with 0.3% retinol, our wrinkle and fine line serum prevents skin sagging by stimulating the synthesis of collagen and elastin. As retinol is photosensitive, it is preferably applied in the evening, on clean and dry face, before your night cream. Its use is not recommended for sensitive and atopic skin.

Sources:

  • PIERARD G. & al. La peau et le temps de la ménopause. La Revue Médicale de Liège (2006).

  • PUIZINA-IVIC N. Skin aging. Acta Dermatovenerologica Alpina Pannonica et Adriatica (2008).

  • QUAN T. & al. Molecular basis of retinol anti-ageing properties in naturally aged human skin in vivo. International Journal of Cosmetic Science (2017).

  • FERREIRA M. S. & al. Trending anti-aging peptides. Cosmetics (2020).

  • ROSSI R.C. &al. Effects of hydrolyzed collagen supplementation on skin aging: a systematic review and meta-analysis International Journal of Dermatology (2021).

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