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Age spots (sun spots)

Definition: A type of hyperpigmentation that appears as small, flat spots that are light brown to black in colour. The result of an increase in melanin production in the skin, these brown spots can occur on the face, neck, chest, shoulders, forearms and hands. Age spots are more common in people over 50 and are much more prevalent in people with pale skin.
Internal and external causes: Overexposure to the sun resulting in inflammation, melanocyte dysfunction as people age.
How to reduce or eliminate: Use skincare products that contain active ingredients with depigmenting properties (azelaic acid, tranexamic acid, vitamin C, arbutin acid, niacinamide, kojic acid, etc.), as well as exfoliants like glycolic acid, lactic acid, salicylic acid or PHAs; dermatological treatments (chemical peels, laser surgery, intense pulsed light, cysteamine cream, cryotherapy).
Preventative steps to take: Apply sunscreen with adequate SPF daily and reapply it regularly, regardless of skin colour; limit the amount of time spent in the sun; keep out of the sun during the hottest part of the day (between 10 a.m. and 4 p.m.); wear clothes and hats to protect yourself from the sun whenever possible.

Related articles: Sun Spots (Age Spots).