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How to get rid of dandruff?

A very common hair condition, excessive dandruff can be unsightly and a source of discomfort. It can sometimes cause irritation and itching. To properly and permanently eliminate it, certain actions should be adopted. Find in this article our advice for getting rid of dandruff.

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Dandruff, a common condition of the scalp.

In France, dandruff affects 1 in 2 people. Despite being harmless, dandruff can tarnish the daily life of those affected, as it is unsightly and causes varying degrees of itching.

Easily recognisable, it refers to dead cells or scales that are whitish or greyish on the scalp. These dead cells are the result of an accelerated cellular renewal at the scalp level. This too rapid cellular renewal causes a defect in the maturation of the epidermal cells, which cannot naturally eliminate themselves. They clump together, thus forming dandruff. Generally, dandruff appears from puberty onwards.

Although the mechanism of accelerated cell renewal causing dandruff is well understood, theorigin of dandruff remains a topic of debate. Indeed, the proliferation of microorganisms (Malassezia fungus), genetic predisposition, and excess sebum are the main causes identified. However, there are other factors that promote the appearance of dandruff (diet, periods of stress...).

The two types of dandruff.

There are two different types of dandruff:

  • Dry dandruff:

    The dry flakes represent the most common type of dandruff. Thin, dry and of a whitish colour, they fall like snow onto the shoulders.

    Generally, dry dandruff is predominantly observed on dry or normal scalps. This type of scalp is characterised by a lack of substances that help to keep skin cells together (ceramides, fatty acids, cholesterol). As a result, the skin's barrier function is compromised. This leads to an insensible loss of water at the scalp level.

    This dryness leads to a phenomenon of desquamation with the appearance of dry flakes on the scalp. Due to a lack of sebum, these flakes do not adhere to the scalp and fall like snow.

  • Oily dandruff:

    Oily dandruff is observed on oily scalps. Indeed, these appear due to an excess of sebum, which is a factor promoting dandruff. Moreover, sebum is a nutritious environment conducive to the proliferation of Malassezia type fungi, responsible for dandruff.

    Unlike dry dandruff, which does not stick to the scalp, oily dandruff remains adhered to it. Moreover, it tends to itch more than dry dandruff.

Although they are harmless, dandruff can impair the quality of life of those affected due to itching and the "neglected" appearance they reflect. Moreover, it can be particularly challenging to eliminate. Certain actions can help reduce their occurrence.

What can be done to eliminate dandruff?

Generally, dandruff conditions are chronic, meaning they tend to recur. To limit the number and frequency of recurrences, certain good practices need to be adopted:

  • Space out your shampooing sessions.

    When one has dandruff, the initial instinct is to wash the hair daily to rid oneself of visible flakes, but this is a mistake! Frequent hair washing leads to a heightened sensitivity of the hydrolipidic film and triggers an overproduction of sebum in response. These two outcomes are factors that promote the onset of dandruff.

    Try tospace out your shampoos as much as possible (a maximum of 3 times per week) in order to maintain the health of your scalp and to avoid creating an environment conducive to the development of dandruff.

  • The use of a suitable gentle shampoo.

    If you have dandruff, the choice of shampoo is of utmost importance. Indeed, it is necessary to avoid shampoos containing harsh surfactants (Ammonium Lauryl Sulfate, Sodium Lauryl Sulfate, Sodium Laureth Sulfate), as these are irritating to your scalp and therefore exacerbate the dandruff phenomenon. Therefore, favour shampoos with gentle surfactants (Lauryl Glucoside, Sodium Lauroyl Sarcosinate...)

    Furthermore, depending on the type of dandruff, the anti-dandruff agents vary. For example, for oily dandruff, we will find sebum-regulating agents (zinc, nettle extract) and keratolytic agents (salicylic acid, lactic acid). For dry dandruff, the moisturising agents (glycerine, aloe vera...) are particularly recommended.

    Some active ingredients are common to both types of dandruff such as the antifungal agents (piroctone olamine), the anti-proliferative agents or even the soothing agents that alleviate itching.

Note : There are anti-dandruff shampoos suitable for both types of dandruff.

  • Opt for cold water!

    Hot water irritates the scalp and stimulates the sebaceous glands. Therefore, when washing your hair, it is preferable to use cold water, which will also help to soothe itching and feelings of discomfort.

Note : Just like hot water, heating devices should be avoided in case of dandruff. If you dry your hair with a hairdryer, set it to the lowest temperature.

  • Avoid wearing hair accessories (hats, caps, headbands).

    When one has dandruff, it can be tempting to wear hair accessories to conceal it. However, these accessories cause sweating and overstimulate the sebaceous glands. As a result, the scalp becomes oily more quickly, promoting the growth of the microorganisms that cause dandruff. Therefore, it is best to avoid wearing hats, caps or headbands as much as possible.

Typology products for getting rid of dandruff permanently.

Our dandruff shampoo is suitable for both oily and dry dandruff. It is formulated with1% of piroctone olamine which has antifungal activity and limits sebum secretion. It also containsjujube extract which regulates desquamation and thus reduces the formation of dandruff. It also soothes itching and irritation. In addition to this, this treatment contains essential oils of Atlas cedar and clary sage known for their anti-dandruff and sebum-regulating actions.

Depending on the type of dandruff, we offer two scalp treatments to be combined with our anti-dandruff shampoo:

  • For oily dandruff: purifying hair serum.

    As a reminder, oily dandruff is caused by an excess of sebum. Therefore, to get rid of it permanently, one must rely on sebum-regulating active ingredients. Our purifying scalp treatment is composed of 4% of zinc PCA andnettle extract which are known for their purifying and sebum-regulating properties. In addition to this, it contains essential oils of peppermint andeucalyptus globulus which, thanks to their antibacterial and antifungal virtues, help to purify the scalp by fighting against the proliferation of microorganisms responsible for dandruff.

Source:

  • WIKRAMANAYAKE C. & al. Seborrheic dermatitis and dandruff: a comprehensive review. Journal of Clinical and Investigative Dermatology (2015).

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