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Comment savoir si j'ai la peau sèche ?

How can I tell if I have dry skin?

Having dry skin can lead to feelings of discomfort, tightness, and redness. Weakened, the skin barrier tends to react to the slightest external or internal aggressions. Discover here all the characteristics of dry skin and how to take care of it.

Summary
Published February 16, 2024, by Pauline, Head of Scientific Communication — 9 min read

How to recognise dry skin?

Dry skin is characterised by quite fine, barely visible pores. Generally rough to the touch, this type of skin can become coarse. It is often referred to as "crocodile skin" when describing dry skin, due to its cracked appearance. Feelings of tightness and itching can also occur in cases of pronounced dryness. Its elasticity is limited and, in extreme cases, minor bleeding may occur. Relatively thin, dry skin is sensitive to temperature changes and tends to flake, meaning dead skin is regularly found on its surface.

There are several levels of skin dryness, the highest being the xerosis. The skin then becomes very uncomfortable. If you have any doubts about the condition of your skin, we recommend that you consult a dermatologist.

The distinction between dry skin and dehydrated skin.

These two terms are often confused, as they both refer to feelings of skin tightness and discomfort. However, their appearance differs : the "crocodile skin" aspect is only found in dry skin. To the touch, a dehydrated skin does not produce a rough sensation, unlike dry skin. From a biological perspective, dry skin lacks lipids, while a dehydrated skin lacks water. Therefore, it is recommended for people with dry skin to apply nourishing treatments while the use of hydrating treatments will be more suitable for people with dehydrated skin. Moreover, dehydration is a skin condition and is therefore a temporary problem : it is entirely possible for dry, normal, combination or oily skin to be dehydrated for a certain period.

The causes of dry skin.

From a biochemical perspective, several studies have highlighted that the sebum production by the sebaceous glands is insufficient in individuals with dry skin. This results in a weakening of the hydrolipidic film, which is present on the surface of the epidermis and whose primary role is to keep the skin hydrated and protected from external aggressions.

Furthermore, we observe a deficiency in natural moisturising factors (NMF) in individuals with dry skin. These are a collection of compounds with hygroscopic properties responsible for capturing and retaining water within the stratum corneum, the outermost layer of the epidermis. Lastly, the synthesis of ceramides, lipids that play a role as intercellular cement, is reduced in dry skin, which impacts the barrier function of the epidermis.

This skin dryness can also be caused by various internal and external factors. Generally, it is a type of skin that is hereditary, due, as previously mentioned, to a deficiency in lipids and insufficient sebum production. This production can also be influenced by hormonal factors such as menopause in women.

Certain conditions such as psoriasis or eczema can also be responsible for skin dryness. Moreover, the skin's ability to produce sebum and retain water molecules within cells decreases with age. As we age, the stratum corneum, the outermost layer of the epidermis, becomes less effective as the skin's internal processes slow down. Lastly, skin dryness can also be associated with a dry climate, cold temperatures, excessive indoor heating or the use of unsuitable products.

How to take care of dry skin?

When one has dry skin, it is recommended to favour gentle, nourishing and lipid-replenishing treatments, and to avoid any product containing matifying active ingredients such as zinc or azelaic acid. The use of alcohol derivatives and synthetic fragrances is also discouraged.

What routine should be adopted daily?

  • Step 1 (evening): remove makeup.

    In the evening, begin your ritual with thecleansing oilcomposed of 7 ingredients (if you have applied makeup or sunscreen), the texture of which will bring comfort to the skin. It helps to rid the skin of makeup and impurities, all without causing irritation. This treatment will also soften and nourish the skin thanks to thesweet almond oil (INCI name: Prunus Amygdalus Dulcis (Sweet Almond) Oil) it contains, which is primarily rich in omega-9.

  • Step 2 (evening): cleanse.

    In the evening, it is recommended to cleanse your skin using a balm or milk cleanser containing gentle surfactants. We suggest our hydrating cleansing milk composed of 0.5% of hyaluronic acid (INCI name: Sodium Hyaluronate) and coconut oil (INCI name: Cocos Nucifera (Coconut) Oil). Enriched with hydrating, emollient and nourishing active ingredients, this cleansing milk removes dirt while respecting the skin's balance, and also helps to reduce feelings of tightness thanks to the chamomile extract (INCI name: Chamomilla Recutita Flower Water) it contains. This natural ingredient with a refreshing scent indeed has soothing and anti-inflammatory properties. You can then complete this routine with a hydrating toner, which will rebalance the skin's pH, while eliminating limestone residues present on the face. Concentrated in hyaluronic acid and aloe vera (INCI name: Aloe Barbadensis Leaf Juice Powder), this lotion helps to rehydrate the skin.

    Note : In the morning, if you have thin, dry and irritable skin, it is better to use a hydrating toner for the cleansing step.

  • Step 3 (morning and evening): hydrate and nourish.

    It is equally important to hydrate the skin. For this, you can use our 3% hyaluronic acid serum which will help to hydrate and plump the skin, while smoothing it. You can complement this treatment with the application of the nourishing serum with olive squalane. This lipid supply helps to repair the hydrolipidic film and thus limit water evaporation.

    It is then necessary to apply a moisturising cream. We advise those with dry skin to use our nourishing cream. With a texture that is not too thick, this treatment nourishes and hydrates the epidermis to strengthen the skin barrier. Enriched with hyaluronic acid, shea butter (INCI name: Butyrospermum Parkii Butter), squalane and plum oil (INCI name: Prunus Domestica Seed Extract), this cream provides instant hydration to the skin, while strengthening the skin barrier through its lipid-replenishing action.

  • Step 4 (morning): Protect from UV rays.

    It is crucial to shield dry skin from the sun's rays, particularly for fairer skin types which have limited melanin production capabilities. To this end, we recommend applying our SPF50 sunscreen prior to any sun exposure. Enriched with hyaluronic acid (INCI name: Hydrolyzed Hyaluronic Acid) and aloe vera, it provides broad-spectrum UVA/UVB protection and prevents photoaging.

  • And for dry lips...

    When one has dry skin, it is necessary to take care of the entire face, including the lips. To this end, Typology has developed a whole range of lip care products, addressing the issues faced by dry or chapped lips. The minimalist formula of our lip balm with 9 ingredients specifically helps to nourish the lips, while reducing feelings of tightness and dryness.

Sources

  • BONTE F. & a. Skin hydration: a review on its molecular mechanisms. Journal of cosmetic dermatology (2007).

  • SCHMELZ M. & al. Skin Barrier Damage and Itch: Review of Mechanisms, Topical Management and Future Directions. Acta dermatologies-venereologica (2019).

  • TAKAMORI K. & al. Mechanisms and Management of Itch in Dry Skin. Acta dermatologies-venereologica (2020).

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