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Definition: Visible, raised, sub-superficial “plugs”, also called closed comedones, that appear under the skin and form in the same way as blackheads, due to an overproduction of sebum (hyperseborrhea) and an accumulation of keratinocytes on the surface (hyperkeratinization). However, the difference with a blackhead is that the pore is completely covered by a thin layer of epidermal cells. Sebum can no longer flow normally and accumulates under the skin. This can create a breeding ground for bacteria, which can then break down and spill its contents to the outside or inside the skin. The whitehead can also develop into an inflammatory stage and form a red, swollen and painful pimple.
Internal and external causes: Overexposure to the sun, poorly adapted contraception, inappropriate skincare, repeated rubbing of clothes against the skin, stress, taking certain medications (antidepressants, steroids, etc.), smoking, unbalanced diet.
How to reduce or eliminate: Gently wash the affected area with appropriate products; treat with a salicylic acid-based care product in a localized manner; integrate care products with keratolytic effects (mandelic acid, glycolic acid, lactic acid, salicylic acid, PHA) into one's routine; do not try to extract them yourself at the risk of aggravating them and increasing the risk of marks.
Preventative steps to take: Make sure you remove all your makeup before going to bed, as well as any impurities; exfoliate your skin regularly (once a week); maintain a healthy, balanced diet; stop smoking; protect your skin with an appropriate sun protection product; wear cotton clothes rather than synthetic materials; clean your cell phone and pillowcases regularly; change your towel often (every three days).