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Citrus Limon (Lemon) Fruit Water

What is "Citrus Limon (Lemon) Fruit Water" and what is its purpose?

This refers to the I.N.C.I. name used to denote lemon extract, also known as lemon hydrosol/lemon water. Derived from the pressed fruit, this compound is recognised for its toning and unifying properties.

Some historical elements about the lemon tree.

The lemon tree is a shrub belonging to the Rutaceae family. It is the result of a complex hybridisation between a male progenitor (the citron tree Citrus medica) and a female progenitor (the bitter orange or Citrus aurantium), the latter itself being a hybrid derived from the grapefruit (Citrus paradisi). The lemon tree thrives in dry lands, particularly around the Mediterranean basin. Originally from the Himalayas, it also enjoys the tropical and subtropical regions of both hemispheres.

The cultivation of the lemon tree was introduced to the Middle East around the 4th century BC by Alexander the Great, followed by the Sumerians and Egyptians. The Crusaders of the Middle Ages facilitated its spread throughout Europe. Lemon juice was then used in medicine to sterilise cuts and wounds, as well as to soothe insect bites.

The lemon is now an iconic fruit of the town of Menton, which has dedicated a festival to it in February-March since the 1930s. Floats are decorated solely with these famous citrus fruits.

How is lemon hydrosol obtained?

Thelemon hydrosolis derived from the steam distillation of the fruit's pericarps (zests). This method involves mixing and heating the plant residues with water in a still, then cooling the water vapour in a condenser to recover it in liquid form. The essential oil, less dense than the water used for extraction, then floats on the surface, which is none other than the hydrosol. This is recognised in cosmetics for its toning properties and its ability to unify the complexion. Unlike essential oil, it can be usedwithout contraindications by children and pregnant womenas it is less concentrated in active species. However, potentially photosensitising, we still advise you to limit sun exposure after applying lemon hydrosol to the skin.

Lemon hydrosol appears as a colourless to whitish liquid with a fresh, lemony scent. In terms of its biochemical composition, it is rich in limonene, alpha-pinene, beta-pinene, geranial and linalool. Its pH is slightly acidic (between 5 and 7), which is quite different from that of lemon juice obtained from the mechanical pressing of the fruits.

The Citrus Limon (Lemon) Fruit Water: its benefits in cosmetics.

When applied topically, lemon hydrosol possesses brightening, astringent, and balancing properties:

  • It tightens the pores and rebalances oily skin.

    Lemon hydrosol possesses a sebum-regulating effect. Furthermore, studies have demonstrated its antibacterial action against both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. It thus combats the proliferation of certain microorganisms implicated in acne such as Propionibacterium acnes .

  • It brings radiance to dull and tired complexions.

    This compound also imparts a healthy glow and evens out the complexion by fading skin spots, also known as hyperpigmentation.

  • It also imparts a fresh and floral fragrance to cosmetic formulas.

    Thus, it can be incorporated into a skincare product to mask the odour of another compound.

When applied to hair, lemon water has shown identical properties. By regulating sebum production, this ingredient rebalances irritated scalps and thus combats dandruff. It is also a strengthener for phaneres (damaged nails and cuticles).

In which skincare products can one find Citrus Limon (Lemon) Fruit Water?

Thevegetable water of lemon is generally recommended for dull and/or oily skin with blemishes. It is thus included in the composition of many facial care products such as purifying mists, cleansing gels, micellar waters... In body care, it sometimes features in deodorants due to its antimicrobial properties.

This substance is gentle and well tolerated by all skin types. Lemon hydrosol has no contraindications and can be used by pregnant and/or breastfeeding women as well as young children. However, it is a photosensitising substance. We advise you to limit sun exposure after applying lemon hydrosol to the skin.

Typology has developed a hyperpigmentation serum concentrated in brightening active ingredients (alpha-arbutin at 2% and lemon extract). We advise you to incorporate it into your skincare routine for at least six weeks to observe its effects.

The antioxidant face cream also contains lemon extract combined with vitamin C. This cream works on skin cells at a deep level to prevent premature ageing. It also tones the complexion and hydrates the skin

Sources:

  • AHMED M. E. The study of bacteriocin of Pseudomonas fluorescens and Citrus limon effects against Propionibacterium acnes and Staphylococcus epidermidis in acne patients. Journal of Physics Conference Series (2018).

  • SANIA R. & al. Biological attributes of lemon: A review,  Journal of Addiction Medicine and Therapeutic Science (2020).

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