The physiology of the eye contour is complex, given that it is an area particularly vulnerable and sensitive. Indeed, the skin around the eyes, extremely delicate, is the first to show signs of fatigue and ageing with the appearance of dark circles, bags or fine lines on the lower eyelid. Here are the reasons for this fragility.
Why is the area around the eye so delicate?
1. An almost non-existent hydrolipidic film.
The eyelids are parts of the body that are very deficient in sebaceous and sweat glands. Consequently, they lack the two main components of the hydrolipidic film: sebum and sweat. The skin around the eyes is therefore more prone to dehydration, dryness and is not protected from external aggressions.
2. An extremely thin skin.
With a thickness of approximately 0.5 millimetres, the skin around the eye is on average 5 times thinner than that of the rest of the face. This thinness thus facilitates the penetration of cosmetic actives present in eye contour treatments but also makes it easier for allergens to penetrate. Moreover, this thinness makes the skin translucent and allows subcutaneous elements (blood capillaries, orbicular muscle...) to be more easily visible.
3. A dermis poor in support fibres.
The elastin and collagen fibres are less abundant in this area than in other parts of the face, making it prone to skin sagging. This characteristic of the eye contour plays a role in the formation of water and fat bags.
4. A highly vascularised area.
The blood and lymphatic capillaries form an area of intense exchange with the tissues. Around the eye contour, this microcirculation can be easily disrupted. Therefore, if the circulation speed decreases, there will be less oxygen and nutrients delivered to the tissues, and waste products will not be properly removed.
5. Limited subcutaneous fat.
In addition to a thin skin, the adipose tissue layer that makes up thehypodermis is much thinner than elsewhere.
6. A highly demanded area.
The skin around the eye is subjected to over 10,000 blinks per day, with the aim of protecting and hydrating the eye. The repetitive action of the muscles damages the elastic fibres of the dermis and expression lines appear. Although physiology and heredity play a major role in the formation of dark circles and bags, poor lifestyle habits (lack of sleep, stress, smoking, excessive alcohol, diet, etc...) can be responsible for their exacerbation.