To determine one's skin type and thus best adapt one's skincare routine, it is not enough to simply take into account one's level of sebum production. Based on a more advanced scientific methodology and taking into consideration other factors, we have defined 24 skin types: AE(+), DP(-), PP(.), VE(+)... but what about the AP(-) profile?
What does it mean to be AP(-)?
What is hidden behind the initials AP(-)?
Skin ageing ABSENT
Oxidation Factor PROTECTED
Sebum Production LOW (-)
The letter "A" for Absence of signs of ageing.
The letter "A" signifies thatno signs of ageing are visible on the skin. Indeed, three main manifestations can affect the appearance of the face, namely wrinkles, a skin sagging (loss of volume) and loss of density. Generally, the first signs of skin ageing appear around the age of 25, reflecting the changes that occur in the different layers of the skin (slowing of cell renewal, reduction in lipid production, decline in the production of collagen, elastin and hyaluronic acid, decrease in the size and number of fat cells...). Although ageing is an inevitable process, it is possible to prevent and exert some control over the various factors affecting the speed of ageing, and thus delay the onset of ageing signs.
The letter "P" for Protecting against oxidation factors.
The letter "P" signifies that the skin is well protected against the sun's UV rays. Beyond these beneficial effects on mood or vitamin D secretion, excessive sun exposure is the main cause of premature skin ageing and the onset of skin cancers. Indeed, UVA rays can cause dermal changes especially in the elastic tissue, and UVB rays lead to epidermal damage. Activation of free radicals, alteration of the cell membrane, DNA modification... UV rays act differently within skin cells to generate damage, which can alter the cell's function, cause its death or provoke DNA mutations leading in the long term to the formation of cancerous cells. Thus, even though the skin has some defences against UV rays (melanogenesis, endogenous antioxidant system...), it is important to regularly apply a sufficient amount of a sunscreen product that is suitable for your skin type and sun exposure conditions, to ensure reasonable exposure while limiting risks.
The symbol "-" denotes Low sebum production.
The "-" indicates a reduction in the ability of the sebaceous glands to produce sufficient sebum (sebaceous hyposecretion), as well as a discrepancy in the synthesis of natural moisturising factors by keratinocytes, which give the skin the ability to retain water. Tightness, irritation, dehydration fine lines, redness, flaking, dull complexion... are characteristic of this skin type.
Indeed, this lack of lipids reduces the effectiveness of the hydrolipidic film. The skin then becomes vulnerable to all forms of aggression (UV rays, pollution, bacteria, etc.), triggering inflammatory responses, and no longer effectively prevents transepidermal water evaporation. Moreover, this alteration in the barrier function leads to a dysregulation of Langerhans cells (cells of the immune system), which begin to induce disproportionate inflammatory responses when they are overly stimulated.
Several factors can influence this low sebum secretion, leading to these disturbances: frequent washing, certain medicinal treatments, unsuitable skincare, seasonal variations, tobacco, UV radiation, genetics... However, although this skin type is more prone to wrinkle formation due to its lack of suppleness, it is, on the other hand, less susceptible to skin sagging given that its thinner epidermis suffers less from the effects of gravitational pull.