Three products for a radiant, customizable tan — without UV rays

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Composition biochimiques algues vertes.

What chemical components does green algae contain?

The green algae offer a multitude of virtues, enabled by its intriguing chemical composition. Let's dissect together the elements that give the green algae its benefits.

The green algae contains essential amino acids.

Thegreen algae contains approximately 40% of the so-called "essential" amino acids , meaning they cannot be synthesised by humans and must be obtained through diet. Indeed, green algae particularly contains significant concentrations of leucine (8.8%), lysine (6.6%), phenylalanine (5.6%), valine (5.6%) and threonine (5.5%).

Amino acids are the building blocks of all proteins, including the most abundant fibrous proteins in the skin such as keratin, collagen, and elastin. Skin sagging and wrinkles are characteristics of skin ageing, and they are primarily associated with the deterioration of collagen and elastic fibres.

The preservation of skin structures through self-repair processes is crucial for skin health. Amino acids, through the formation of these fibres, can contribute to the promotion of wound healing, to the repair of damaged skin and to the retention of water in cellular layers, such as the stratum corneum.

The green algae contains a large amount of fatty acids.

Green algae contains essential fatty acids. Indeed, green algae particularly features high concentrations of linolenic acid (45.8%), palmitic acid (37.1%) and linoleic acid (2.7%). Their profile is mainly represented by unsaturated fatty acids (mono- and especially polyunsaturated), accounting for approximately 61% of the present fatty acids. These fatty acids are part of the omega-3, omega-6 and omega-7 groups, respectively.

Linolenic acid, a crucial element in our diet, is essential for the production of fatty acids vital for our metabolism, such as docosahexaenoic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid. These omega-3s play a key role in the regulation of skin lipids, particularly ceramides, essential lipids that preserve the integrity of the skin barrier. By acting on the skin, omega-3s promote the formation of a protective lipid barrier which maintains skin hydration and improves its suppleness.

accelerating the healing process and to strengthening the skin's resistance against external aggressions.

Omega-7 fatty acids, such as palmitoleic acid, are present in the skin and mucous membranes, and play a significant role in skin health. They inhibit inflammatory factors and restore collagen production through the activation of the sirtuin-1 gene (SIRT1), a tumour suppressor, and the down-regulation of NF-κB and MMP-1, which are responsible for inflammation and the degradation of dermal fibres. Therefore, omega-7s have anti-inflammatory effects and promote regeneration of cells.

The green algae is rich in chlorophyll.

Chlorophyll is a green pigment abundant in green algae (1 to 2% of dry weight) and is found in thylakoids. Oxidative stress, caused by pollution, stress or UV rays, can lead to a degradation of skin fibres through the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Chlorophyll is known to be a antioxidant effective.

It can prevent oxidative DNA damage and lipid peroxidation by reducing ROS through the capture of these free radicals by singlet oxygen quenching and by chelating metallic ions, which can form ROS. Thus, chlorophyll can help to reduce the effects of oxidation on the skin, such as skin ageing, and helps to maintain its integrity.

The green algae contains carotenoids.

The carotenoids, yellow-orange pigments, such as astaxanthin (550,000 μg/g of algae), canthaxanthin (362,000 μg/g of algae) and lutein (from 52 to 3830 μg/g of algae) present in green algae such as chlorella (Chlorella vulgaris) can be beneficial in preventing damage, particularly skin damage, caused by oxidation. Indeed, they are excellent antioxidants.

In instances of oxidative stress (pollution, tobacco, UV, etc.), there is the production of free radicals, which accelerates the skin ageing process through the degradation of dermal proteins such as collagen. Antioxidants are then able to capture these free radicals by trapping singlet oxygen and reducing the damage. Consequently, skin ageing will be slowed down, and the skin will become more supple and elastic.

The green algae is a source of vitamins.

The green algae possesses a significant vitamin profile , including Vitamin A (β-carotene), C (ascorbic acid) and E (tocopherols). These are key elements for the growth and differentiation of cells within the human body, and have an antioxidant activity through the trapping of radicals.

Indeed, they prove to be good agents in protecting the skin against the harmful effects of various external aggressions, causing oxidative stress. By trapping free radicals, they limit the skin damage from oxidation, thereby helping to slow down and prevent the photo-ageing of the skin.

The green algae contains mineral salts.

Finally, green algae contain minerals, including potassium (1.11 mg/100 g), calcium (0.34 mg/100 g), magnesium (0.38 mg/100 g), and iron (0.38 mg/100 g). These mineral salts play a role in the skin. For instance, calcium is a regulator of cellular function and of the terminal differentiation of the epidermis, leading to the formation of an effective permeability barrier function. Magnesium contributes to the formation of the skin barrier. Iron acts as an antioxidant by capturing free radicals. Potassium contributes to the natural hydration of the skin, particularly responsible for the water retention capacity in the upper epidermal cell layers.

Sources

  • KOBAYASHI H. & al. Significance of amino acid composition in enhancing skin collagen protein synthesis rates in UV-irradiated mice. Amino Acids (2012).

  • YANG C. M. & et al. The antioxidant and free radical neutralising activities of chlorophylls and pheophytins. Food and Nutrition Sciences (2013).

  • VACA-GARCIA C. & al. Morphology, composition, production, processing and applications of Chlorella vulgaris: A review. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews (2014).

  • KWON J. & al. Omega-7 suppresses inflammation and stimulates collagen production via SIRT1 activation. Applied Biological Chemistry (2018).

  • SOLANO F. Metabolism and functions of amino acids in the skin. Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology (2020).

  • GUYONNET-DEBERSAC P. & al. Skin Minerals: Key Roles of Inorganic Elements in Skin Physiological Functions. International Journal of Molecular Sciences (2022).

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