Three products for a radiant, customizable tan — without UV rays

Three products for a radiant, customizable tan — without UV rays

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Is it possible to completely eliminate wrinkles?

Wrinkles, indicators of skin ageing, are sometimes demonised and labelled as unattractive. However, their onset can be delayed by using appropriate skincare. If they are already visible, it is always possible to reduce them, or even almost make them disappear.

Wrinkles: causes, origins and definition.

Wrinkles are one of the revealing signs of skin ageing. They are visible structural changes on the skin's surface, appearing as folds and grooves. Biologically, wrinkles are caused by skin laxity, which is triggered by a deficiency in collagen and elastin. These are proteins produced by skin cells known as fibroblasts, whose role is to maintain the skin's elasticity and firmness. As we age, the production of these two proteins decreases, and the skin gradually loses its elasticity. Furthermore, keratinocytes divide more slowly with age, causing the thinning of the epidermis, which becomes more vulnerable and folds more easily. Additionally, over time, there is also a reduction in the subcutaneous fat layer (hypodermis) that shapes the facial contours.

Several secondary factors can also contribute to the formation of facial wrinkles, including theconstant pull of gravity, the frequent and constant positional pressures on the facial skin (for example during sleep), and the repeated movements of the face caused by the contractions of the mimetic muscles of facial expression (for example smiling, lip curling, frowning...). Thus, we distinguish two main types of facial wrinkles, corresponding to two distinct formation processes: static and dynamic (also called expression wrinkles).

Cosmetic surgery to completely eliminate wrinkles.

The only way to completely eliminate wrinkles is through cosmetic surgery. The three most popular methods are as follows.

  • Botox injections

    First authorised in 1997 and practised in France from 2003, the aim of Botox injections is to diminish the visible wrinkles on the facial skin. A small quantity of botulinum toxin is sufficient for the results to be noticeable. Injected into the skin tissues, this molecule halts the action of the neurotransmitter. The muscle subsequently weakens. No muscle contraction is observed as long as the Botox is active.

    Botox injections are primarily used for visible wrinkles between the eyebrows. However, they can also be employed to smooth out crow's feet formed at the outer corner of the eye. They can also be used to erase forehead wrinkles or to perfect the contour of the lips where sadness wrinkles or bitterness folds appear.

  • Hyaluronic Acid Injections

    In aesthetic medicine, within the range ofinjectionsfor anti-wrinkle treatments, hyaluronic acid is renowned for delivering excellent results. These can be administered in various areas of the face including the cheekbones, lips, temples or nasolabial folds. Hyaluronic acid can also be injected to erase crow's feet, forehead wrinkles, marionette lines or hand wrinkles. The tolerance of hyaluronic acid by the body is a significant advantage. Indeed, hyaluronic acid isbio-compatible and bio-resorbable by the skin. This is explained by the fact that it is already present in the dermis, where it ensures its hydration.

  • Dermabrasion or "peeling"

    This refers to a surgical technique designed to eliminate pronounced wrinkles. This method relies on the abrasion of the wrinkled area, either mechanically or chemically, in order to remove the superficial layers of the skin where the wrinkle is located.

However, where there is surgery, there is also healing and the risk of complications. The scars resulting from a surgical procedure can be just as unsightly as wrinkles. During the operation, complications may arise depending on the patient, which could potentially damage the skin, or even pose a threat to general health.

Even though skincare treatments cannot completely eliminate established wrinkles, certain active ingredients can visibly reduce their appearance and plump up the skin.

Cosmetic actives to diminish the appearance of wrinkles in a non-invasive manner.

There exist treatments designed to reduce the appearance of wrinkles. These treatments most commonly come in the form of creams or serums. They are formulated with active ingredients that have regenerative and reparative properties. Here is a non-exhaustive list of the most effective active ingredients for combating wrinkles.

  • The peptides

    Peptides are small proteins (short chains of amino acids). They are naturally occurring biological elements in the body. The main role of exogenous peptides in topical application is to effect changes in the complex pathways regulating the expression of skin proteins, generally to prevent signs of ageing.In other words, peptides are most often used to trigger a signalling cascade and stimulate the production of collagen and elastin. Furthermore, some peptides can also boost the production of hyaluronic acid in the skin, for a hydrated, plump and smoother skin. There are four types of peptides in skincare:

    • Les oligopeptides apportent des oligo-éléments à la peau pour stimuler le collagène;

    • Les peptides inhibiteurs d’enzymes ralentissent l'action des enzymes qui dégradent certaines protéines de la peau comme le collagène ou encore des glycosaminoglycane comme l'acide hyaluronique ;

    • Les peptides de signal envoient des messages pour stimuler la production de certaines protéines comme le collagène, l'élastine ou encore l'acide hyaluronique ;

    • Les peptides neurotransmetteurs sont souvent comparés au "botox" en raison de leur activité inhibitrice sur la libération de toxines qui induisent une contraction musculaire et des rides d'expression. L'argireline est le peptide neurotransmetteur le plus efficace pour diminuer l’aspect des rides d’expression. L'argireline est en fait le nom commercial de l'acetyl hexapeptide-3. L'argireline affecte la communication entre le nerf et le muscle, de sorte que les muscles ne peuvent pas se contracter de manière optimale. Outre ses effets de paralysie musculaire, ce peptide stimule la production de collagène, ce qui contribue à maintenir la peau lisse et sans rides.

  • The retinol

    This derivative of Vitamin A operates on multiple levels to prevent wrinkles or reduce those already present on the skin's surface. Many of its tissue effects are mediated by its interaction with cellular receptors, such as the cellular retinoic acid-binding protein (CRABP) of types I and II and the cellular retinol-binding protein. Retinol and retinoids in general act on several levels.

    With age, the epidermis thins and both cellular renewal and keratinocyte proliferation slow down. This loss of skin tissue promotes the appearance of wrinkles on the skin's surface. Retinol acts by stimulating the proliferation of keratinocytes.

    Furthermore, retinol restricts the degradation of collagen and elastin. These two proteins are key components of the connective tissue that makes up the dermis. They strengthen the skin and increase its elasticity and firmness. Unfortunately, over time, they are broken down by enzymes known asmatrix metalloproteinases (MMP), and more specifically collagenase and elastase. Topical application of retinol inhibits the activity of these enzymes, preventing them from causing harm. In addition, it stimulates the synthesis of type 1 collagen in the dermis.

Sources

  • BOREL J. P. & al. Stimulation of collagen synthesis in fibroblast cultures by a triterpene extracted from Centella asiatica. Connective Tissue Research (1990).

  • KAFI & al. Improvement of naturally aged skin with vitamin a (retinol). Archives of Dermatology (2007).

  • LINTNER K. Peptides : What else ? Cosmeticobs (2014).

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