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Effets consommation alcool psoriasis.

Alcoholism: A Trigger Factor for Psoriasis?

Psoriasis is an inflammatory disease that affects the skin. It is characterised by the emergence of scales and red patches on various areas of the body. Certain factors are suggested to promote the onset of psoriasis, such as alcohol consumption. Is this really the case? The answer is in this article.

Summary
Published February 20, 2024, by Manon, Scientific Editor — 3 min read

What are the causes of the onset of psoriasis?

Psoriasis is a systemic and chronic inflammatory skin eruption. It presents itself as red and thick plaques that shed. Psoriasis is characterised by an excessive renewal and accumulation of epidermal cells, leading to local inflammation. This disease tends to affect adults, with a peak onset generally between the ages of 20 and 40. Approximately 30% of cases are said to be familial and appear during adolescence. When psoriasis appears after the age of 40, it is referred to as isolated or sporadic forms. However, it affects both sexes equally.

Skin inflammation is caused by a failure of the immune system. T lymphocytes produce inflammatory cytokines (IL-17, IL-22, TNF-α, among others). These stimulate the proliferation of keratinocytes. When the renewal period of skin cells, which is normally about three weeks, is accelerated to just three days, this leads to an accumulation of immature keratinocytes on the skin's surface. The consequences are an increase in the thickness of the outer layer of the skin, known as the horny layer, and is referred to as hyperkeratosis.

What is the connection between psoriasis and alcohol?

Currently, there is no scientific link between alcohol consumption and the onset of psoriasis. However, alcohol could potentially exacerbate psoriasis. Indeed, it is believed to worsen skin inflammation by affecting both innate and adaptive immunity. Alcohol is thought to stimulate the proliferation of lymphocytes and keratinocytes, as well as the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines.

Some clinical studies have demonstrated a positive correlation between alcohol consumption and the extent of psoriasis. A study involving 1,203 hospitalised patients with various subtypes of psoriasis revealed a relationship between the Psoriasis Area and Severity Index (PASI) and the level of alcohol consumed. The higher the level of alcohol consumed, the greater the severity of the psoriasis.

In addition to harming health, alcoholism could potentially exacerbate psoriasis, particularly by increasing systemic inflammation within the body. However, it should be noted that no study has definitively established a link between alcohol and psoriasis due to a limited number of willing participants. Therefore, it is advised to limit alcohol consumption as much as possible in the case of psoriasis.

Sources

  • RICHEUX V. Alcool et tabac : le risque de l'engrenage. Association France Psoriasis (2011).

  • SVANSTRÖM C. & al. Psoriasis and alcohol. Psoriasis: Targets and Therapy (2019).

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