Three products for a radiant, customizable tan — without UV rays

Three products for a radiant, customizable tan — without UV rays

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Facteurs aggravants le mélasma.

What are the factors that exacerbate melasma?

Melasma is a form of hyperpigmentation frequently observed in pregnant women (but not exclusively). If you are affected by this issue, discover here the actions to avoid in order not to exacerbate this skin condition.

Some reminders about melasma.

Also known as cholasma or "pregnancy mask", melasma is a symmetrical hyperpigmentation of the face, ranging from light brown to dark brown. It occurs during the second trimester of pregnancy in 45 to 75% of women. This appearance of spots is also visible in about a third of women taking oral contraceptives.

Depending on the location of the brown spots, there are 3 types of melasma:

  • The centrofacial melasma: The spots are clustered in the T-zone, upper lip, and chin area;

  • The malar melasma (the most common): The spots are located only on the nose and cheeks;

  • The mandibular melasma: Aggregation of spots on the lower jaw.

Melasma can also be categorised according to the layer of skin affected:

  • Theepidermal melasma, which is the most superficial form, with hyperpigmentation of the epidermis;

  • The dermal melasma which affects the dermis, the intermediate layer of the skin that is vascularised and contains the essential proteins for firmness and elasticity (collagen, elastin);

  • Themixed melasmawhich is characterised by both an epidermal melasma and a dermal melasma.

It should be noted that women with darker skin are at a higher risk of developing melasma. Furthermore, men can also be affected if they are undergoing oestrogen treatment as part of a prostate cancer therapy. According to the American Academy of Dermatology, 10% of melasma cases affect men. This condition can also affect individuals undergoing hormone replacement therapy or those on anti-epileptic medications.

Factors that can exacerbate melasma.

Several factors are likely to make melasma spots more visible and/or multiply them.

  • Hormonalsaturation : Melanocytes (cells that produce melanin responsible for spots) are hyper-stimulable in pregnant women and in individuals on oral contraception. According to several studies, melasma would be due to theincrease in levels of female hormones (oestrogen and progesterone) as well as beta-endorphin. Indeed, these hormones are powerful stimulants of melanogenesis. Furthermore, women who develop hyperpigmentation following the use of contraceptive pills would be more predisposed to developing melasma during their potential future pregnancy.

  • Repeated solar exposures stimulate melanocytes and promote melasma. The best prevention remains sun protection. Therefore, it is advised to limit the times exposed to the sun, avoid exposure during the most intense hours (between 11am and 3pm), wear clothing and hats for protection, and of course apply asunscreendaily, even on cloudy days.

  • Overly aggressive facial cleansing, frequent exfoliation, rubbing or friction can also exacerbate melasma.

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