Limited Edition: Cleansing Balm with Organic Camellia Oil

Limited Edition: Cleansing Balm with Organic Camellia Oil

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Bienfaits calendula peau.

The benefits of calendula for the skin.

Once used as a dye for fabrics, food and cosmetics, calendula is now praised for its merits as an ingredient to help address a range of skin issues, and to improve the quality and appearance of the skin. We have outlined here the multiple biological activities of calendula and its mode of action.

Benefit No.1: Calendula as a soothing agent.

Theinflammation is triggered by numerous pathophysiological conditions in response to an infection or tissue injury. In the early stages of this process, the first line of defence is provided by macrophages which, in the presence of a stimulus, produce several pro-inflammatory mediators, including nitric oxide, cytokines, and prostaglandins. Under normal conditions, the release of these molecules is of paramount importance, manifesting severely, rapidly, and only for a short period until the resolution of harmful stimuli. However, abnormal production of these pro-inflammatory mediators over a long period can evolve into chronic diseases related to inflammation.

The Calendula officinalis L. is often prescribed for its anti-inflammatory potential, documented in numerous experimental and clinical studies. The presence of terpenoids (faradiol, lupeol, faradiol monoester, bisabolol, β-amyrin) and flavonoids (quercetin, isorhamnetin, kaempferol) in marigold would confer this activity with a dose-dependent effect. For instance, one study revealed that the reduction in inflammation observed was greater the higher the concentration of faradiol monoester that the botanical preparations contained. Another study also showed that a lipophilic extract of calendula flowers is capable of reducing oedema due to the action of faradiol esters.

It has been suggested that calendula extract works by inhibiting pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, IFN-γ), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and the synthesis of prostaglandins. Calendula, through the action of certain bioactive constituents, would also cause a decrease in the level of nitric oxide (NO), a pro-inflammatory mediator produced by macrophages associated with several conditions (inflammatory skin diseases, hyper-proliferative diseases, autoimmune diseases and skin cancer). Therefore, the extract of calendula flowers can thus be used in topical formulations for inflamed and injured skin to soothe acute and chronic inflammations caused by skin conditions, such as rosacea, allergic contact dermatitis, theeczema, sunburn or nappy rash, as a complementary skin care.

Benefit No. 2: The antioxidant action of Calendula.

Thanks to its content of flavonoids, polyphenols, and carotenoids, calendula is believed to be capable of protecting the skin from oxidative stress, a general term that describes the damage that occurs when the skin is exposed to free radicals. Without intervention, these can alter cellular DNA, which ultimately damages structural compounds such as collagen and elastin, and causes lipid peroxidation.

Several studies have shown that calendula protects the skin from oxidative damage and reduces the symptoms of skin ageing. The results indicate that calendula flower extract has proven capable of trapping superoxide radicals and hydroxyls, inhibiting lipid peroxidation and increasing the levels of catalase, glutathione, superoxide dismutase and ascorbic acid, limiting the effects they can have on the skin. It thus helps to limit the appearance of signs of skin ageing.

Benefit No. 3: Calendula oil for wound healing.

It has been reported that calendula may be effective in the healing of wounds and skin ulcers. This healing property of calendula can be attributed to its pro-angiogenic, fibroplastic and keratoplastic effects. Thus, calendula could help to prevent wound complications as a complementary treatment.

An animal study has demonstrated that calendula has a positive effect on angiogenesis, characterised by the induction of neovascularisation, which promotes the diffusion of necessary nutrients and oxygen for faster healing (increase in fibroblast metabolism and production of the extracellular matrix).

Similarly, calendula flowers, rich in flavonoids, would activate the PI3K metabolic pathways in fibroblasts and the NF-kB pathway in keratinocytes, thereby stimulating their proliferation and migration to increase the production of granulation tissue and accelerate the regeneration of damaged skin tissue.

Benefit No. 4: Calendula for its antimicrobial properties.

Phenolic compounds, such as flavonoids and phenolic acids, along with saponins, are believed to give calendula bactericidal properties against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, as well as antifungal properties. It is thought to have the ability to inhibit the growth in vitro of Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Calendula is also believed to have potential fungicidal effects against various isolated yeast strains (Candida albicans, Candida parapsilosis, Candida tropicalis, etc.). As a result, this property of calendula could help prevent certain skin infections such as acne. However, further studies are needed for a full understanding.

Benefit No.5: Calendula as a sun protector.

The UV rays from the sun can wreak havoc on the skin, potentially leading to premature signs of ageing and even skin cancers. Studies have been undertaken to investigate the sun protection activity of the essential oil of Calendula officinalis. According to the studies, calendula essential oil would have a sun protection factor (SPF) in vitro between 8 and 14. These results would suggest that calendula may have a photoprotective effect or increase the additional value of a sun protection formula. However, calendula has a low SPF value, not providing sufficient sun protection when used alone. Further experiments are needed to consolidate these initial data and determine the types of phytoconstituents responsible for this property. The application of a sunscreen containing UV filters remains the most effective approach to prevent photoaging, sunburn, wrinkles, age spots, immunosuppression and other skin damage.

Sources

  • KRUSTEVA S. & al. Influence of the physiological regeneration and epithelialization using fractions isolated from Calendula officinalis. Acta Physiologica et Pharmacologica Bulgarica (1982).

  • ISAAC O. & al. & al. The role of triterpenoids in the topical anti-inflammatory activity of Calendula officinalis flowers. Planta Medica (1994).

  • FRANZ C. & al. Anti-oedematous activities of the main triterpendiol esters of marigold (Calendula officinalis L.). Journal of Ethnopharmacology (1997).

  • GUERIERO A. & al. Simultaneous quantitative determination of eight triterpenoid monoesters from flowers of 10 varieties of Calendula officinalis L. and characterisation of a new triterpenoid monoester. Phytochemical Analysis (2004).

  • KIMURA Y. & al. Anti-inflammatory, anti-tumor-promoting, and cytotoxic activities of constituents of marigold (Calendula officinalis) flowers. Journal of Natural Products (2006).

  • KUTTAN R. & al. Antioxidant potential of Calendula officinalis flowers in vitro and in vivo. Pharmaceutical Biology (2006).

  • CORTEZ D. A. G. & al. Antifungal activity of the essential oil from Calendula officinalis L. (Asteraceae) growing in Brazil. Brazilian Journal of Microbiology (2008).

  • MERFORT I. & al. Determination of the wound healing effect of Calendula extracts using the scratch assay with 3T3 fibroblasts. Journal of Ethnopharmacology (2009).

  • CHATTOPADHYAY P. Calendula officinalis: An important herb with valuable therapeutic dimensions — An overview. Journal of Global Pharma Technology (2010).

  • FONSECA M. J. V. & al. Protective effect of C. officinalis extract against UVB-induced oxidative stress in skin: Evaluation of reduced glutathione levels and matrix metalloproteinase secretion. Journal of Ethnopharmacology (2010).

  • GARELLA D. & al. Phytotherapeutics: an evaluation of the potential of 1,000 plants. Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics (2010).

  • PAULO N. M. & al. Angiogenic activity of Calendula officinalis flowers L. in rats. Acta Cirurgica Brasileira (2011).

  • CHATTOPADHYAY P. & al. Assessment of in vitro sun protection factor of Calendula officinalis L. (Asteraceae) essential oil formulation. Journal of Young Pharmacists (2012).

  • CHATTOPADHYAY P. & al. Effects of calendula essential oil-based cream on biochemical parameters of skin of albino rats against ultraviolet B radiation. Scientia Pharmaceutica (2012).

  • GUPTA R. K. & al. Phytochemical and antimicrobial screening of medicinal plants for the treatment of acne. Indian Journal of Natural Products and Resources (2012).

  • NIGAM P. S. & al. Antimicrobial activity of Calendula officinalis petal extracts against fungi, as well as Gram-negative and Gram-positive clinical pathogens. Complementary Therapies in Clinical Practice (2012).

  • PAULO N. M. & al. Wound healing and anti-inflammatory effect in animal models of Calendula officinalis L. growing in Brazil. Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine (2012).

  • SHARMA A. & al. A review on phytochemistry and ethnopharmacological aspects of genus Calendula. Pharmacognosy Reviews (2013).

  • MERFORT I. & al. Triterpene alcohols from Calendula officinalis L. flowers and in vitro studies on their wound healing activity. Planta Medica (2014).

  • KARMAKAR P. & al. PI3K-mediated proliferation of fibroblasts by Calendula officinalis tincture: Implication in wound healing. Phytotherapy Research (2015).

  • KARMAKAR P. & al. The water fraction of Calendula officinalis hydroethanol extract stimulates in vitro and in vivo proliferation of dermal fibroblasts in wound healing. Phytotherapy Research (2016).

  • ARISAWA E. A. L. S. & al. Low-level laser therapy and Calendula officinalis in repairing diabetic foot ulcers. Revista da Escola de Enfermagem da U S P. (2016).

  • MERFORT I. & al. In vitro studies to evaluate the wound healing properties of Calendula officinalis extracts. Journal of Ethnopharmacology (2017).

  • HAGHANI H. & al. The impact of calendula ointment on caesarean wound healing: A randomized control clinical trial. Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care (2018).

  • KIM Y. C. & al. Antioxidant and skin anti-aging effects of marigold methanol extract. Toxicological Research (2018).

  • HARATS M. & al. A systematic review of Calendula officinalis extract for wound healing. Wound Repair and Regeneration (2019).

  • VERMA A. & al. Cosmeceutical potential of geranium and calendula essential oil: Determination of antioxidant activity and in vitro sun protection factor. Journal of Cosmetic Dermatology (2019).

  • HASSAN E. F. & al. Extraction and clinical application of Calendula officinalis L. flowers cream. (2019).

  • RADHAKRISHNAN R. & al. Role of flavonoids in thrombotic, cardiovascular, and inflammatory diseases. Inflammopharmacology (2019).

  • ALMEIDA I. F. & al. Anti-inflammatory activity of Calendula officinalis L. flower extract. Cosmetics (2021).

  • GUARITA-SOUZA L. C. & al. Treatment of acute wounds in hand with Calendula officinalis L.: A randomized trial. Tissue Barriers (2021).

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